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The Founding Fathers
Of The United States Of America:
Our Greatest National Treasure
George Washington Nathanael Greene

A Declaration
By The Representatives of
The United States of America

In General Congress Resolved
By The Second Continental Congress

June 28, 1776

Jefferson's Draft
First draft of the Declaration penned by: Thomas Jefferson,
Chairman Congressional Declaration Committee,
Including: Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston and Roger Sherman.

The Declaration

Resolved With Unanimous Consent
By The Second Continental Congress

The United States Of America

July 4, 1776

Final Version of the Declaration of Independence,
signed by the President of the Second Continental Congress
affirmed by Representatives from all 13 former Colonies,
and penned by Timothy Matlack, Congressional Scribe.


Resolved With Unanimous Consent
In Congress, July 4, 1776

Second Continental Congress
United States of America

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truthes to be self-evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unaleinable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.   That, to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.   Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for the light and transient causes; and accordingly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.   But when in a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security.   Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government.   The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states.   To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, -- a right inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measure.

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing, with manly firmness, his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the state remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dangers of invasions from without and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws for the naturalization of foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us in times of peace standing armies, without the consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to, the civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitutions and acknowledged by our laws, giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;

For protecting them, by a mock trial, for punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these states;

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;

For imposing taxes on us without our consent;

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;

For transporting us beyong seas, to be tried for pretended offenses;

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies;

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments;

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coast, burned our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation, and tyranny all ready begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hand.

He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has endeavored to bring on inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated injury.   A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in our attentions to our British brethren.   We have warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us.   We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here.   We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity; and we have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence.   They too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity.   We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions do,in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states; and they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connections between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do.   And, for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Devine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.


A special thanks also to all musicians for their wonderful music helping define the character of the American People and historical sensitivity of the history of Rhode Island Revolutionary War Major General Nathanael Greene.   Viewers are not authorized by law to copy the sound or imagry contained on this Web Page.   FBI Warning: Unauthorized duplication or recording of this material is prohibited by U.S. Federal Law and is protected by copyrights including all sound and imagery, which are ©2006 Nathanael Greene Homestead Museum, Spell Hall or by other contributing artists, designers and authors.

This site is managed by: Gregg A. Mierka, Webmaster, C/O Gen. Nathanael Greene Homestead Museum, at Spell Hall, Coventry, R.I.

©All Rights Reserved, 2006

Colonial American Flag
Colonial Rebel Flag
Bennington Flag
1st United States Flag

Independence Hall The House Of Pass & Stow

A special thanks also to Pulitzter Prize Author-Historian David McCullough, who agreed with Gregg Mierka at Spell Hall, that, General Nathanael Greene is the Greatest Forgotten Hero in American History, saying,
"I think we need to do something about that".

You are listening to the wonderful period music of Alisa Jones, and acompanying musicians, song: "Salley Guarden", from her CD, "Irish Dreams", ©All Rights Reserved, Green Hill Productions, Nashville, TN.
See the Homestead Education Center for contacts to acquire recommended music for schools, teachers and students.

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